Nima Arkani-Hamed was here at Columbia yesterday to give the physics colloquium, which clocked in at a bit over 1 hour and 45 minutes. He did reveal the secret of why his talks are this long: when invited to give a 1 hour colloquium, he plans on talking for at least 1 hour 30 minutes. The content of the talk was similar to many others he has given recently that are available on the web, see for instance this one at the IAS, this recent one at BNL, or for a written version, see here.
As a performer, he’s a powerful speaker: smart, vigorous, and supremely self-confident. His arguments lead to “inevitable” conclusions, not just implying results but “nailing” them. It’s clear why he’s the most influential person in the field these days. With most theorists made worried and unsure by 40 years of failure to get anywhere in their efforts to improve on the Standard Model, he knows exactly what he thinks and will tell you forcefully what you should think. The fact that none of the ideas about BSM physics he is famous for (large extra dimensions, split SUSY, Little Higgs, etc…) have ever worked out doesn’t seem to slow him down, and he has a professorship at the IAS and a $3 million prize from Yuri Milner to back him up.
Despite his long-time advocacy of SUSY, according to Arkani-Hamed, the negative results from the LHC are “not making many of us worried about SUSY”. He (accurately) points out that he’s not one of those like Gordon Kane who for decades has been predicting the discovery of superpartners to be six months away. It has long been clear that the simplest versions of SUSY should have shown up at LEP and the Tevatron, and pre-LHC the lack of any indirect evidence for SUSY indicated to him that it was unlikely to show up at the 8 TeV LHC. So, by his lights, there’s no reason that LHC results so far should cause any new worries about SUSY, beyond those he already had pre-LHC. On the more limited question of whether a “natural” version of SUSY will work out, one where the superpartner masses just barely avoid large amounts of fine-tuning, a year ago (see here) he was saying we were at the “eleventh and a halfth hour” for this possibility. Now that the 8 TeV results are here (and negative), he argues that it is only with the 2015 data that the results will be decisive. The current wisdom about “natural SUSY” I guess is summarized in slide 8 here: Keep Calm and Wait for 14 TeV.
The main point of the talk was one that Arkani-Hamed has been consistently making for nearly a decade, that the role of the LHC is to decide between two possible futures for fundamental physics:
- The small value of the Higgs mass (in Planck units) has a “natural” explanation, most likely using SUSY, in which case we spend the rest of our lives unraveling the complexities of a SUSY-extended Standard Model.
- The small value of the Higgs mass (in Planck units) indicates “fine-tuning” that can only have an anthropic explanation, just like the one for the CC. In that case, we live in a multiverse, with physics determined by something like the string theory landscape. About this whole conceptual framework, he says the “ideas are so poorly defined, not clear if they make any kind of mathematical sense”, and it’s “not clear progress will happen anytime soon” but, no need to worry or get discouraged, since this is an “attractive problem”.
Based on the LHC results so far, it looks like all evidence is that we’re headed to the second alternative.
Arkani-Hamed’s talk was structured so as to present a long chain of argument (needing at least 1h 30 min to explain) leading to these two alternatives. One of the alternatives (SUSY naturalness) is essentially already dead, with the die-hards intent on hanging on a couple more years. The other is essentially what David Gross has called “giving up”: you just announce that the problems you haven’t been able to solve can never be solved. In this vision, the 20th century with its huge success at finding a highly predictive, mathematically beautiful fundamental theory was an aberration caused by only being able to see physics at energies way below the Planck scale. In this new 21st century physics, you just postulate that at higher energies things are much more complicated, in ways we can’t hope to ever know, and theorists devote their lives to making excuses, not predictions. Witten may end up being right that “string theory is 21st century physics that fell into the 20th century”, in a much more negative way than he intended.
If a long, complicated argument leads you to the conclusion that the only viable alternative is to give up, then it seems to me you have two choices: give up, or examine more carefully your argument. A much more interesting and more useful talk than Arkani-Hamed’s would be one less devoted to forcefully insisting on the conventional chain of argument based on the technical problem of sensitivity of the Higgs potential to the cut-off, instead looking carefully for weaknesses in the argument (one possibility is discussed here). Arkani-Hamed is a brilliant physicist, but this may be a time when what is needed is not self-confidence in the power of one’s arguments, but instead a suspicion that one has been making a mistake somewhere for quite a while now.