According to this article, string theory is going to be tested using quantum computers, by doing a lattice QCD calculation:
The way string theory is tested involves ‘lattice quantum chromodynamics’: a calculation problem far beyond what digital computers can achieve. ‘Quantum computers,’ he writes, ‘may be the final step in finding the Theory of Everything.’
‘I’m not a computer person. I’m a theoretical physicist,’ he says. ‘But I got into quantum computers because I realised this may be the only way to quantitatively prove that string theory is correct. String theory exists in the multiverse. That is, we exist perhaps in parallel states which are bizarre, with new laws of physics, but we coexist with them. The way to prove it is with a quantum computer.’
I suppose you need to buy the book to find out more.